The thymus includes ancient extracellular signalling molecules which are cues, such as growth factors, hormones, cytokines, extracellular matrix components and neurotransmitters, designed to transmit specific information to target cells. Increasing knowledge about the roles of extracellular matrix and its components in the nervous system development and disease is important from the therapeutic viewpoint. Activation of signaling cascades underlying reorganization of the extracellular matrix and stimulation of neuronal plasticity is an achievable goal and a promising approach for treatment of acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Recent data suggest that extracellular matrix proteases modifying cell recognition molecules on the neuronal surface, modulate synaptogenesis and plasticity during development and neurorepair. [Retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/21996/extracellular-matrix-in-development-and-disorders-of-the-nervous-system; https://febs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/febs.15776].
A new study reveals how adipocytes, or fat cells, play a role in cognitive decline and increased neurodegeneration risks. Using genetically modified mouse models, researchers found oxidative stress through exposure to a Western diet increased the production of inflammatory cytokines confined to adipocytes and altered protein markers of memory and cognition in the hippocampus. [Retrieved from https://neurosciencenews-com.cdn.ampproject.org/c/s/neurosciencenews.com/fat-cells-cognition-19521/amp/?fbclid=IwAR0EsMm7hYb1k-f63z0CfVd5cLiHRJ_RNavyXvI4U-0Jow03LuqA3EueXpQ].
Note: The innate neuronal property [natural ambient light] might be utilized to protect neurons from degeneration or cell death in the future. The researchers were also able to identify that a feedback mechanism was responsible for these changes and that it relied on the signalling protein Wnt. The results contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying brain functions such as learning and memory. This research showed that the feedback signal mediated by the secreted protein Wnt is required for the synapse change [adaptability aka neuroplasticity]. [Retrieved from https://neurosciencenews.com/synaptic-plasticity-visual-system-1968/].
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