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My Elbert: Neuroimmune Reactions, Mental Heath & Neurodegenerative Disorders

Very, very interesting! Case reports of Parkinson’s in COVID-19 and protein components of SARS-CoV-2 could trigger the aggregation of α-synuclein into amyloid. They chose to study the two most abundant proteins of the virus: the spike (S-) protein that helps SARS-CoV-2 enter cells, and the nucleocapsid (N-) protein that encapsulates the RNA genome inside the virus. [Retrieved from https://lnkd.in/eWgMd8Cn].

 

Another study has found impaired functional connectivity and autistic-like behaviors in CX3CR1−/− mice lacking responsive microglia (Zhan and others 2014), for example, though this could be due to two reasons: a transient decreased microglial density in postnatal development, or the fractalkine signaling pathway being responsible for the tagging of synapses. Also, a new study expressed by microglia—the immune cells of the central nervous system—TAMs perform bona fide immune-related roles as regulation of inflammation and cytokine secretion both in health and in disease such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, ischemia, and multiple sclerosis. Likewise, TAM receptor MERTK expression is enriched in the central nervous system and in resident innate immune cells where it regulates numerous functions that support brain plasticity. [Retrieved from https://lnkd.in/eqj7PFPN].

Communication from gut to brain occurs through tryptophan, an essential building block of serotonin. Serotonin is key in regulating mood, eating, and sleep patterns. There is limited storage capacity for tryptophan in the brain, and a constant supply is required from the gut. It was once believed that tryptophan came strictly from diet alone, but what research has shown is that gut microbiota, particularly Bifidobacterium, produces tryptophan and increases its levels in the bloodstream. This study below has since been replicated, adding to global evidence linking the microbiome-gut-brain axis to stress and mental health disorders. Low diversity in the gut microbiota is now considered a significant biomarker for major depressive disorder. Other mental health and neurodegenerative disorders with significant microbiome-gut-brain ties include: post-traumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease, and autism. The microbiome-gut-brain axis also plays a critical role in irritable bowel syndrome, and in understanding the link between mental health disorders and physical illness, such as depression or anxiety co-occurring with inflammatory bowel disease. (Retrieved from https://lnkd.in/emsKcAuK].

 

Iron chelation therapy, either subcutaneous or orally administered, has been used successfully in various clinical conditions. The removal of excess iron from various tissues, e.g., the liver spleen, heart, and the pituitary, in beta thalassemia patients, has become an essential therapy to prolong life. More recently, the use of deferiprone to chelate iron from various brain regions in Parkinson’s Disease and Friederich’s Ataxia has yielded encouraging results, although the side effects, in <2% of Parkinson’s Disease(PD) patients, have limited its long-term use. A new class of hydroxpyridinones has recently been synthesised, which showed no adverse effects in preliminary trials. A vital question remaining is whether inflammation may influence chelation efficacy, with a recent study suggesting that high levels of inflammation may diminish the ability of the chelator to bind the excess iron. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6789569/; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33805195/]

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Email: Tcooktutoring@gmail.com Schedule Appointment Tricia Cook, MEd, RSP, AOG, Online Dyslexia Tutor, Author
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